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Après les poissons, ce sont les coupes de viande

This is taken almost verbatim from the excellent FrenchEntree site which has all sorts of advice and information for English expats in France.

Pork (porc - viande porcine)
 
Bacon if thinly sliced is poitrine, or belly, preserved with salt. The French tend to slice their poitrine fairly thick, in order to make lardons, so you need to ask for the slices to be ‘fine’. Bacon is rarely injected with water in France, so you get more for your money, it tastes better and crisps-up easily. Not the same as the packets called bacon - these are brined, trimmed pork

Echine - meaning shoulder, encompasses the blade bone and spare ribs

Plat de côtes - where the hand and belly meet

Côtes - where the carré comes from, and is made up of loin chops. Basically, rack of pork.

Filet - in France, is from the hind loin area. The English fillet is from the part which the French call jambon, or ‘ham’

If you want your joint with crackling, this should be no problem for your local butcher, but you may need to order it in advance. Ask for the joint avec la couenne

Joues - cheeks

Jambon blanc - the sort of sliced ham we buy in packets in Britain. Jambon de Paris is like this. You can buy it avec couenne (see above).

Chicken, duck, goose and others (volaille)

Poulet - chicken (probably ex-layer, and the ‘normal’ age to buy one).
Oie - goose
Poulette - young chicken.
Coq - cockerel
Pintade - guinea fowl - more popular in France than the UK
Dinde - turkey
Cuisses - thighs
Pilot - chicken drumstick
Magret - breast e.g the popular magret de canard
Carcasse - carcasse for making stocks and soups


Lamb (agneau)
 
Gigot d’agneau - leg of lamb
Echine - shoulder
Côtes - chump
Collet - scrag (end)
Poitrine/ poitrail - breast
Côtelette - chop, usually from the rack of lamb, where the British cutlet comes from
Jarret - can mean shank or shin
Selle d’agneau - saddle

Steaks - remember that French butchers cut beef differently to the British so translations are sometimes tricky.
 
Bifteck/ steak - steak
Bavette -
undercut - from the skirt, textured with long muscle fibres
Filet -
fillet
Steak à hacher -
used for steak tartare and steak haché. Steak haché looks like a burger, but is simply this high quality steak minced up and pressed together. It is usually freshly done, which is why people are happy to eat them rare. Not comparable to a beef hamburger
Romsteak/ rumsteak -
rump steak. Pavé de rumsteak - lump of steak like a cobblestone
faux filet -
sirloin
Entrecôte -
ribeye
Côte de boeuf "T-bone"T-bone steak hard to translate into French; Wordreference has a thread on this.
Tournedos/ filet mignon - tenderloin steak usually cut almost as high as it is wide. basically a chunk of tender steak, usually served quite rare unless otherwise requested. You can get tournedos of lamb, too
Onglet is hanger steak

Other beef (boeuf - viande bovine)

 
Tête de veau -
head
Langue de bœuf
beef tongue
Gîte (à la noix)
topside
Queue -
tail
Cou -
neck
Tranche -
meaning ‘slice’, implies a steak of any meat other than beef.
Filet/ longue/ aloyau -
all words for loin. Loin chop is côte première

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