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Clarity is all

I began my teaching career believing that teaching almost always in the target language was the way to go to maximise pupil progress. I would still hold to this pretty strongly, but after many years of experience teaching quite able young linguists I came to realise more and more that pupils understood less of what I and my colleagues were saying than I had thought. So much for comprehensible input!

I also realised that some students were being put off the subject a bit because basically they didn't really know what was going on all the time. They felt confused and even a little alienated. Maybe, to put it technically, their "affective filter" comes into play, makes them feel uncomfortable and negative about the subject. This would occur typically when, after explaining an activity in French, you realised you had to do it again in English to ensure everyone was clear what they were doing and successfully on task. My conclusion was that, in order to maximise motivation and, ultimately, useful comprehension of the target language, you had to compromise on its use.

You see, clarity is vital for children, isn't it? They love to know exactly what is expected of them. If you confuse them before or during a task, they will switch off, learn little, get bored and behave worse. Now, having assumed that we use all the usual clues to aid with understanding of the TL - picture, gesture, mime etc - when would we be justified in using English without any feelings of shame?! When do we need to sweeten the pill?

  • When explaining grammar points orally or in writing
  • When setting up a complex pair, group or writing task
  • When giving pep talks to classes about why you use certain methods and what you expect from pupils
  • When correcting poor behaviour
  • When telling anecdotes or talking about the target language culture
  • When explaining exam specifications and mark schemes
  • When giving general feedback about homework
  • When doing translation or other "transfer of meaning" work
  • When explaining what the aim of a lesson is or was
  • When recapping what was learnt (plenaries)
  • When giving extra special praise (this could carry more weight than a run-of-the-mill comment in French)
  • Checking meaning of individual words
  • When greeting and saying goodbye to individual pupils - making personal contact, getting to know them better
  • When intervening in pair work to give personal support
  • When raising the voice for effect
  • When writing in detailed feedback in an exercise book
  • When discussing targets
  • When giving immediate feedback to a student after an oral presentation
The relationship between a teacher and a class is an immensely subtle one and, whilst I do not say it is impossible to work solely in the target language, I believe that using English judiciously will improve relationships and ultimately result in greater motivation and progress. I have read of a 90% rule and this does not seem unreasonable.


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What teachers are saying about The Language Teacher Toolkit

"The Language Teacher Toolkit is a really useful book for language teachers to either read all the way through or dip into. What I like about it is that the authors Steve Smith and Gianfranco Conti are totally upfront about what they believe to be good practice but back it up with research evidence." (Ernesto Macaro, Oxford University Department of Education)

"I absolutely love this book based on research and full of activities..  The best manual I've read so far. One of our PDs from the Australian Board of Studies recommended your book as an excellent resource.  I look forward to the conference here in Sydney." Michela Pezzi, Teacher, Australia, Facebook)

"Finally, a book for World Language teachers that provides practical ideas and strategies that can actually be used in the classroom, rather than dry rhetoric and theory that does little to inspire creativity in ways that are engaging for both students and teachers alike." (USA teacher, Amazon review)

The Language Teacher Toolkit review

We were delighted to receive a review of The Language Teacher Toolkit from eminent applied linguist Ernesto Macaro from Oxford University. Macaro is a leader in the field of second language acquisition and applied linguistics. His main research interests are teacher-student interaction and language learning strategies pupils can use to improve their progress.

Here is Professor Macaro's review:
The Language Teacher Toolkit is a really useful book for language teachers to either read all the way through or dip into. What I like about it is that the authors Steve Smith and Gianfranco Conti are totally upfront about what they believe to be good practice but back it up with research evidence. So for example the ‘methodological principles’ on page 11 are supported by the research they then refer to later in the book and this approach is very similar to the one that we (Ernesto Macaro, Suzanne Graham, Robert Woore) have adopted in our ‘consortium project’( The point i…

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When the pressure is on and there are only so many hours on the week, you need a repertoire of zero preparation go-to activities which promote input and/or practice. Here are five you might well find useful.

1. My weekend

We know that listening is the most important yet often neglected skill for language learning. It's also something some pupils find hard to do. To develop listening skill and provide tailored comprehensible input try this:

You tell the class you are going to recount what you did last weekend and that they have to make notes in English. The amount of detail you go into and the speed you go will depend on your class. Talk for about three minutes. If you spent the whole weekend marking, you can always make stuff up!

You then make some true or false (maybe not mentioned too) statements in the target language about what you said in your account. Class gives hands up (or no hands up) answers. This can then lead into a simple pair work task where pupils make up their own tru…