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Un vol transatlantique "vert"

Apparemment  Air France a effectué mardi dernier un premier vol "vert" de Paris à Miami. Ils ont réussi a réduire de quelques tonnes les émissions de CO2, en diminuant le temps de roulage au sol, en changeant la manière dont l'avion monte et descend (en continu, non par "paliers") et en réglant continuellement l'altitude et la vitesse pour une consommation optimale de kérosène.

Ce vol est loin d'être vert bien entendu, mais on peur les féliciter sans doute d'avoir fait un effort pour réduire le CO2 émis dans l'air.

Pour traverser l'Atlantique il faut prendre l'avion. Le seul moyen véritable de réduire la pollution émise, c'est d'exploiter au maximum des avions gros porteurs comme le nouvel Airbus. Cela permettrait de réduire le nombre de vols et de produire moins de CO2 par passager.

Pour ce qui est des vols de court et de moyen-courrier, mieux vaudrait prendre le train. Un problème c'est que le régime de taxation favorise le transport aérien: les compagnies aériennes ne paient pas de taxes sur le kérosène. En plus le coût d'entretien des infrastructures ferroviaires est énorme, sans parler du fait que les compagnies aériennes low cost on fait un grand effort pour réduire leurs coûts à tous les niveaux. N'oublions pas non plus que le nombre de trains est limité par le nombre de voies ferrées. Ceci est un facteur promordial sur certaines lignes.

Que faire pour rendre le train plus compétitif?

Agir au niveau européen: taxer les vols davantage; subventionner davantage le train avec l'argent accumulé; investir dans de nouvelles lignes rapides (plus polluantes malheureusement); rendre le train plus attractif que l'avion en offrant plus de confort et de vitesse. En décidant de créer une nouvelle ligne TGV entre Londres et Manchester le gouvernement est sur la bonne voie (si j'ose le dire). En général les gens préfèrent prendre le train à l'avion, mais il faut que le prix soit abordable.

Pour sortir les gens de leur voiture... c'est une autre question.

A noter:

Emissions CO2 par passager...

Voyage: Aller-retour en avion... Et par le train...
Londres - Paris par Eurostar 3.5 heures, 244 Kg/CO2 2.7heures , 22 Kg/CO2
Londres - Edimbourg 3.5 heures, 193 Kg/CO2 4.5 heures, 24 Kg/CO2
Londres - Nice 4 heures, 250 Kg/CO2 8 heures par Eurostar+TGV, 36 Kg/CO2
Londres - Barcelone 4.5 heures, 277 Kg/CO2 Eurostar puias wagon-lit, 40 Kg/CO2
Londres - Tanger 5 heures, 435 Kg/CO2 48 heures par Eurostar, wagon-lit et ferry, 63 Kg/CO2
  Source:  The Observer, 29/01/06 &   Kg/CO2 pour un aller-retour.
Si vous voulez comparer vos émissions de CO2 pour un voyage en Europe, allez à:


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