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L'apprentissage des langues vivantes en France

http://www.vousnousils.fr/2010/09/17/l%E2%80%99enseignement-des-langues-vivantes-en-france-etat-des-lieux-18-324774

Cliquez sur le lien si vous voulez voir la série d'articles en entier.

Le site VousNousIls, que je voudrais explorer davantage, propose un hors-série sur l'apprentissage des langues vivantes en France. Voici la première partie que je copie en entier. Cela pourrait intéresser mes collègues britanniques:


"La pra­tique d'une pre­mière langue débute dès l'école élémen­taire, et ce, de manière de plus en plus en pré­coce. En effet, si aujourd'hui tous les enfants de cycle 3 (CE2, CM1, CM2) suivent des cours de langue, cet ensei­gne­ment s'étend pro­gres­si­ve­ment aux classes de CP et de CE1. L'anglais est la langue la plus étudiée à l'école pri­maire, avec plus de 90% des effec­tifs.
A leur entrée au col­lège, les élèves pour­suivent leur appren­tis­sage avant de débu­ter une seconde langue vivante en classe de 4ème. Ils peuvent arrê­ter ce cours en 3ème, s'ils optent pour le module de décou­verte professionnelle.

La réforme du lycée

Le lycée, quant à lui, connaît plu­sieurs chan­ge­ments. Depuis la ren­trée 2010, l'apprentissage de deux langues étran­gères est obli­ga­toire pour tous les élèves de seconde géné­rale. Auparavant, la LV2 n'était qu'une option, obli­ga­toire si le lycéen visait un bac géné­ral, mais facul­ta­tive pour cer­taines filières technologiques.
Autre objec­tif fixé par la réforme : tous les lycées doivent ins­tau­rer un par­te­na­riat avec un établis­se­ment étran­ger. Il s'agit ainsi de déve­lop­per les séjours lin­guis­tiques et de per­mettre aux élèves d'échanger avec un correspondant.
Les méthodes péda­go­giques évoluent égale­ment. Le minis­tère prône l'enseignement par groupes de com­pé­tences. Les élèves sont ainsi regrou­pés selon leur niveau et non plus par classe. Les dota­tions horaires de LV1 et LV2 ont d'ailleurs été glo­ba­li­sées afin de favo­ri­ser la mise en place de ces groupes.
Enfin, les lycéens des filières géné­rales et tech­no­lo­giques ont tou­jours la pos­si­bi­lité d'étudier une troi­sième langue. Près de 7% d'entre eux ont choisi cette option en 2009 (2).
Concernant les lycées pro­fes­sion­nels, toutes les for­ma­tions intègrent l'enseignement d'une langue vivante. De plus, depuis 2009, la pra­tique d'une seconde langue est obli­ga­toire pour les bac­ca­lau­réats du sec­teur des services.

Des objec­tifs européens

En termes de com­pé­tences, les objec­tifs des pro­grammes sco­laires se calent sur le Cadre euro­péen com­mun de réfé­rence pour les langues. Les col­lé­giens doivent ainsi atteindre le niveau A2, à savoir celui d'un uti­li­sa­teur élémen­taire, pour obte­nir le bre­vet. Les lycéens sont tenus d'avoir le niveau d'utilisateur indé­pen­dant (B2) pour décro­cher le baccalauréat.

L'anglais domine

Du côté des langues étudiées, pas de sur­prise. Près de 94% des élèves choi­sissent l'anglais comme pre­mière langue. L'allemand, qui arrive en seconde posi­tion, ne regroupe qu'un peu moins de 7% des effec­tifs. Pour le choix de la seconde langue, l'espagnol arrive lar­ge­ment en tête avec 71% des élèves du second degré. Viennent ensuite l'allemand, l'anglais et l'italien. A noter qu'il est pos­sible d'étudier une langue régio­nale en tant que LV2 : 0,7% des élèves font ce choix.
Au final, que ce soit en pre­mière, seconde, voire troi­sième langue, 98% des élèves du secon­daire apprennent l'anglais, 40% l'espagnol, et 15% l'allemand."

Coralie Bach

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